In March 2018, the UK Treasury updated the ‘Green Book’ guidance for policy appraisal and evaluation. Following a review of research evidence from the What Works Centre for Wellbeing, the guidance now includes wellbeing appraisal at all stages of policy development, including:

  • Defining the focus of the appraisal
  • Generating a long list of policy options and impacts
  • Comparing possible final interventions – even stating that there are some cases where it makes most sense to compare the wellbeing impacts of policy.

The Green Book also highlights the need to evaluate the impact of policy on wellbeing, rather than just impact on gross domestic product (GDP). The move to include wellbeing as one of the fundamentals of evaluating and appraising government policy has been gathering pace in recent years. Eight years ago, the government set up the Social Impacts Task Force, consisting of analysts from Whitehall and the devolved government administrations, to develop a cross-departmental approach to understanding social impacts. The aim of wellbeing analysis is to better demonstrate the full implications of policies – for instance, assessing how different transport options affect community cohesion, or the wellbeing impacts of different forms of flood defense measures.

“Subjective wellbeing evidence can challenge decision-makers to think carefully about the full range of an intervention’s impacts,” states the updated edition of the Green Book.

Research evidence reviews from the What Works Centre for Wellbeing showed that subjective wellbeing measures can pick up meaningful, important and quantifiable differences in wellbeing.

Find out more here.

The Royal Society for Arts, Manufacturers and Commerce (RSA) is a network of leading change-makers in the UK. They recognised that “the economy is an issue that the public recognise as of primary importance, but feel they have little agency and authority over”. RSA saw that there was a severe democratic deficit when it came to economic policy that had led to increasing distrust of government, particularly after the 2008 financial crisis and the resulting austerity measures.

Public deliberation about economic policy is important, not only because it shapes better and more informed policies, but also because “deliberation helps us to explore citizen values and voices, promotes transparency about economic priorities, promotes stronger awareness and education about economics and ultimately strengthens democracy and debate”.

RSA therefore developed a Citizen’s Economic Council where 54 UK citizens undertook a 2-year process of deliberation on the economy, it’s outcomes and co-creating policy with policymakers.

“Its uniqueness lies in its focus on exploring national economic priorities and values and engaging citizens in shaping and advocating for economic policy ideas — ensuring that economics is made accessible and engaging for everyone”.

At the launch of the Citizen’s Economic Council final report and recommendations, Andy Haldane, Chief Economist of Bank of England was so impressed by the initiative that he committed to setting up regional citizen councils to help better inform economic policy making across the country.

Find out more here and here.

In 2010, Kenya adopted a new constitution, which prioritised the principles of participation, accountability, and transparency. On the basis of these principles, the Government of Kenya embarked on a bold process of decentralisation. This involved transferring many government functions and spending to 47 County Governments, which were more closely connected to their people. This has been and ongoing process, with the continuous development of sub-counties, wards, and decentralised entities such as Village Councils with the aim of increasing public engagement in priority setting, decision-making, and governance.

Whilst working to devolve power, the central government has also been working to ensure coordination amongst local authorities to achieve their priority policy goals of increasing manufacturing, food security, affordable housing, and universal health care. Particular attention has also been given to enhancing the inclusion and representation of women, youth, and persons with disabilities in these processes.

Throughout this process, Kenya has been working with various international development agencies to conduct multi-stakeholder discussions (particularly with women and youth). The aim is to explore the gains achieved for marginalised communities as a result of this constitutional reform, and to better understand the barriers for their full political participation.

To support this work, local governments have been working to develop better information on citizen priority issues at the local level, which can help to inform their policies, laws, and legislation. For example, in 2019, the World Bank began working with the Baringo and Elgeyo Marakwet county governments to develop a series of workshops to brought together 50 young people (aged 18-35) from diverse socio-economic backgrounds. The aim was to co-design solutions for enhancing youth participation in policy design and implementation processes. Some of the suggestions from these workshop for County Governments to implement included:
1. Prioritise engagement and training on how public participation is feasible at all levels, from the village to the county, and how youth can self-organise and turn their ideas into actionable proposals.
2 .Make available information about existing opportunities for youth participation. This could be achieved by advertising meetings – their agenda and actors – across social media and public forums, using language youth understand, and developing a youth-centred communication strategy for government policies and initiatives.
3. Grant youth more responsibility over budgets and policies, including directly allocating budgets for youth and advocate for and design policies with youth. This could be done by creating youth-led spaces for youth to mobilise their peers and aggregate their preferences.

Find out more:
https://blogs.worldbank.org/governance/how-kenya-empowering-youth-participate-government-budgeting

An important feature of the wellbeing economy is that it pays attention to the wellbeing of future generations. This means that the wellbeing of children and young people is an essential aspect of a country’s economic strategy.

“Success is about making New Zealand both a great place to make a living, and a great place to make a life”. – Grant Robertson, Finance Minister of New Zealand

Child poverty was one particular area that created the impetus for the creation of New Zealand’s Wellbeing Budget in 2019. Following years of pressure from social movements and expert advice to address the issue, data analysed by the Ministry of Social Development confirmed widespread child poverty in the country. It became a national scandal that 30 years of GDP growth had not improved the measure of child poverty, not even in absolute terms. This issue was a widely accepted illustration of the need to look beyond GDP growth.

Consequently, the government passed the Child Poverty Reduction Act 2018. The Act defines four primary measures of child poverty – two measures of low income households, one measure of material hardship, and one measure of persistent poverty. It also defines six supplementary measures of child poverty. The Act requires the government to publish and report on reduction targets for each of the primary measures, with a duty to explain any non-compliance with the targets. The analysis must include trends for identified populations, such as for the indigenous population of the country.

The Government presented the country’s first Child Poverty Report within the Wellbeing Budget of May 2019. It presented baseline data for the primary measures of child poverty, and defined targets for the measures that the government aimed to achieve in three years and in ten years. It also presented modelling work by the Treasury explaining how the whole-of-government policies in the Budget would contribute to achieving those targets.

Following this, the New Zealand Government also created a Child and Youth Wellbeing Strategy, which it published in August 2019, to work toward the targets set. The strategy identifies six outcomes:

  • Children and young people have what they need
  • Children and young people are loved, safe, and nurtured
  • Children and young people are happy and healthy
  • Children and young people are learning and developing
  • Children and young people are accepted, respected, and connected
  • Children and young people are involved and empowered

For each outcome, the Government has selected a set of statistical indicators for monitoring trends over time. Some of these indicators will come from a new survey of young people, designed to gather data about health and wellbeing. This nationwide survey will take place in 2021.

This case study illustrates how a government can use evidence as a benchmark to create a dashboard of statistical measures and indicators, in order to set targets and report on progress towards a Wellbeing Economy.

Find out more here.

New Zealand – The Just Transitions Unit’ tags=’Wellbeing Policy Design’ custom_id=’What are the goals of a Wellbeing Economy? / What is Wellbeing Economic Policy?’ av_uid=’av-131mirj’]
In May 2018, the New Zealand Government set up the Just Transitions Unit in its Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, to foster a transition towards a low emissions economy that is “fair, equitable and inclusive”. The unit operates by creating partnerships in communities undergoing a major transition.

These partnerships have four objectives:

  1. Build an understanding of potential pathways to transform the economy to low emissions;
  2. Identify, create and support new opportunities, new jobs, new skills, and new investments that will emerge from the transition;
  3. Better understand how the transition might impact different communities, regions or sectors; and
  4. Make choices about how to manage these impacts in a just and inclusive way.

As part of its climate change programme, the Government stopped issuing new permits for offshore oil and gas exploration in 2018. That policy has a large impact on economic security in the Taranaki region, which has supported oil and gas exploration off the west coast of the North Island of New Zealand for several decades. The Just Transitions Unit has worked in that region, with a particular focus on its energy sector in a low emissions future.

It established a Taranaki Transition Lead Group of representatives drawn from central government, local government, Māori, business, the workforce, education and community organisations. This group facilitated 29 workshops around the region, including a specialised event for youth. It also sponsored a creative competition for students aged 7–18 to describe their vision for 2050; more than 140 took part. Material from this process fed into a draft Taranaki 2050 Roadmap, launched at a National Just Transition Summit hosted in the region in May 2019. The Summit involved 550 people from around the country. Kate Raworth (author of Doughnut Economics) was a keynote speaker.

Following the finalisation of the Roadmap in August 2019, the Lead Group then facilitated workshops to create eleven Transition Pathway Action Plans (TPAPs). The Energy TPAP, for example, agreed on the following Action Statement:

“Using our know how and resources we will transition to a world-leading energy eco-system that provides sustainable, secure and affordable low-emissions energy by 2050, while creating meaningful work, community well-being and prosperity for generations to come.”

Projects to implement the TPAPs are under way, including a project to build a Clean Energy centre in Taranaki.

Find out more here.

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The major economic policy event in most countries is the delivery of the Government’s Budget each fiscal year, in which it announces its revenue and expenditure plans. In May 2019, New Zealand attracted international attention for launching the country’s first Wellbeing Budget, which committed to putting people’s wellbeing and the environment at the heart of its policies.

The Wellbeing Budget is designed to use social and environmental indicators, along with economic and fiscal ones, to guide the Government’s investment and funding decisions.

“The purpose of government spending is to ensure citizens’ health and life satisfaction, and that — not wealth or economic growth — is the metric by which a country’s progress should be measured. GDP alone does not guarantee improvement to our living standards and does not take into account who benefits and who is left out.” – Jacinda Ardern, Prime Minister of New Zealand

Design Principles

The official Wellbeing Budget document describes the design principles behind this novel approach to economic policy: it breaks down agency silos and works across Government to assess, develop and implement policies that improve wellbeing; it focuses on outcomes that meet the needs of present generations at the same time as thinking about the long-term impacts for future generations; and it tracks the Government’s progress with broader measures of success, including the health of the country’s finances, natural resources, people and communities.

  1. Focusing on outcomes that meet the needs of present generations at the same time as thinking about the long-term impacts for future generations.
  2. Breaking down agency silos and working across government to assess, develop, and implement policies that improve wellbeing.
  3. Tracking progress with broader measures of success, including the health of people, communities, the environment and public finances.

1. Wellbeing Priorities

The Budget began by answering the question, “What is wellbeing?” The Wellbeing Vision, resulting from this reflection was:

“Wellbeing is when people are able to lead fulfilling lives with purpose, balance and meaning to them. Giving more New Zealanders capabilities to enjoy good wellbeing requires tackling the long-term challenges we face as a country, like the mental health crisis, child poverty and domestic violence. It means improving the state of our environment, the strength of our communities and the performance of our economy.” (The Wellbeing Budget, 30 May 2019)

The Budget cycle began with the Cabinet selecting a small number of Wellbeing Budget priorities, using a collaborative and evidence-based approach. Statistical evidence on wellbeing and its distribution among the population, from the Treasury’s Living Standards Framework (LSF), was combined with advice from sector experts and the Government’s Chief Science Advisors. The LSF is divided in two sections:

  • Current wellbeing (income, housing, security, education health etc.); and
  • Future wellbeing (land use, skills and knowledge, health, natural and social environment).

Some measures are taken annually, some quarterly and some more often. The aim is to take into account both the quality of economic activity and the long-term impact of current policies.

After this period of research, five wellbeing priority areas for the 2019 Wellbeing Budget were set, based on where evidence showed the greatest opportunity to make a real difference to the lives of New Zealanders: aiding the transition to a sustainable and low-emissions economy, supporting a thriving nation in the digital age, lifting Māori and Pacific incomes, skills and opportunities, reducing child poverty, and supporting mental health for all New Zealanders. New Zealand allocated NZ$25.6b over four years into the Wellbeing Budget, with spending on the five priority areas representing roughly 5 percent of total expenditure.

2. Ways of Working

Ministers and agencies then developed initiatives targeting international wellbeing outcomes, analysed using the LSF. For each outcome, the Government has selected a set of statistical indicators for monitoring trends over time. Government Ministries and Departments collaborated in budget bids for new funds, to show how proposals would contribute to the priority areas. An example of this was 10 agencies coming together to jointly put in a bid to help address family and sexual violence.
The Cabinet then agreed on an integrated programme of policies to meet its prioritised wellbeing outcomes. The standard Budget documentation was redesigned to make clear how any policy or initiative, including the government’s balance sheet and asset management, contributed to improvements in wellbeing. This practice is spreading throughout the public service. The Treasury, for example, has begun to evaluate and communicate how the government’s balance sheet and asset management contributes to improving wellbeing. The Government of New Zealand has embedded this wellbeing approach into legislation through the Public Finance (Wellbeing) Amendment Act 2020.

3. Tracking Progress

While the Wellbeing Budget 2019 only accounted for new spending for one fiscal year, it made good progress in investing in priority areas. Sustained investment is needed to tackle long-term infrastructure and social deficits; such complex issues cannot be fixed in a single Budget.

“Achieving genuine and enduring change in the way Budgets and policies are developed takes time. We know that we cannot meaningfully address long-term problems like child poverty, inequality and climate change through a single Budget. This is why the Government committed to taking a wellbeing approach to Budget 2020 and beyond to build on the successes of our first Wellbeing Budget.”

The New Zealand government has embedded this wellbeing approach into legislation through the Public Finance (Wellbeing) Amendment Act 2020. It is continuing, and in some cases expanding, the work started within its 2019 wellbeing priorities. The 2020 wellbeing goals are:

  • Just Transition – Supporting New Zealanders in the transition to a climate-resilient, sustainable, and low-emissions economy
  • Future of Work – Enabling all New Zealanders to benefit from new technologies and lift productivity through innovation
  • Māori and Pacific – Lifting Māori and Pacific incomes, skills and opportunities
  • Child Wellbeing – Reducing child poverty and improving child wellbeing
  • Physical and Mental Wellbeing – Supporting improved health outcomes for all New Zealanders

The 2019 Wellbeing Budget was a bold experiment in not only shifting understandings of progress but also embracing a new way of designing policies.

This wellbeing approach contributed to the Government’s swift and effective management of COVID-19 pandemic, as their first priority was protecting the health and wellbeing of their citizens rather than the growth of their economy. At the time of writing, New Zealand has one of the lowest COVID fatality rates in the world with only 25 people having died since the start of the pandemic. They have also used a wellbeing approach to help inform their COVID-recovery efforts and to bolster spending in critical public services such as health, education and green infrastructure.

Barriers to change include the need for further clarification on how to compare policy proposals that had different impacts on wellbeing. While the Treasury has provided some monetarisation estimates for different types of wellbeing impacts, this remains a work in progress.

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In 2017, there was a change of government in New Zealand. At the State Opening of Parliament after the election, the Speech from the Throne announced a new vision for the country’s economic policy: “We need to move beyond narrow measures and views of value and broaden the definition of progress. The economic strategy will focus on how we improve the wellbeing and living standards of all New Zealanders.”

As the government of New Zealand worked to develop the world’s first Wellbeing Budget, they began by using the OECD Wellbeing Framework to understand relevant dimensions for wellbeing.

However, the government recognised that much of our contemporary understanding of economic progress and wellbeing, including the OECD’s framework, has been informed by Anglo-Saxon philosophical traditions

Therefore, the government also worked to ensure that diverse communities were able to contribute their voices to defining wellbeing in New Zealand, based on their cultural perspectives, values and knowledge systems

This involved an initiative to develop a vision of wellbeing, based in mātauranga Māori, the knowledge of the country’s Indigenous population. The name for this Wellbeing Framework is He Ara Waiora, meaning “pathway to wellbeing”.

The framework demonstrates relationships between different elements of wellbeing. At the centre is Wairua (spirit), which reflects the values, beliefs and practices that are the foundation or source of wellbeing. Surrounding the spirit (in green) is Taiao (the natural world/environment), which is presented as the foundation and source of social wellbeing.

The next circle, in red, is Ira Tangata (society), which encapsulates human activities and relationships. The concept of mana (power) is seen as vital for wellbeing, with people thriving when they are empowered to grow and develop, connect with others and have the resources they need to flourish.

The outside circles (blue) present principles to guide how people should work together to achieve wellbeing. These emphasise the importance of coordination and alignment, working in partnership and according to the right processes, promoting collective and strength-based actions, protecting and promoting empowerment, and stewardship of the environment.

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In 2017, the Dutch Government instigated a process of institutional reform to better align economic and environmental strategies by realigning ministerial mandates and creating the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Climate Policy.

The Government’s Climate Plan, the National Energy and Climate Plan (NECP), and the National Climate Agreement contain the policy and measures to reduce the Netherlands’ greenhouse gas emissions by 49% by 2030, compared to 1990 levels, and a 95% reduction by 2050.

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Basque Country has a strong culture of cooperatives and employee ownership, which have one defining purpose: protecting workers.

One example is the Mondragón Corporation, which is a vast collection of 96 cooperative enterprises. Its cooperatives employ more than 70,000 people in Spain, making it one of the nation’s largest sources of paychecks. They have annual revenues of more than 12 billion euros ($14.5 billion). The group includes one of the country’s largest grocery chains, Eroski, along with a credit union and manufacturers that export their wares around the planet.

Most of its workers are partners, meaning they own the company. Though the 96 cooperatives of the Mondragón Corporation must produce profits to stay in business — as any company does — these businesses have been engineered not to lavish dividends on shareholders or shower stock options on executives, but to preserve paychecks.

In the town of Mondragón, the cooperatives trace their origins to the wreckage of the Spanish Civil War in the early 1940s, when a priest, José M. Arizmendiarrieta, arrived in the area bearing unorthodox ideas about economic betterment. The priest viewed cooperative principles as the key to lifting living standards.

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Confronted with rising poverty after the economic crisis of 1995, the Mexican government progressively changed its poverty reduction strategy, ending universal tortilla subsidies and instead funding new investment in human capital through PROGRESA.

PROGRESA (Programa de Educacion, Salud y Alimentacion) is an innovative Mexican program that provides Conditional Cash Transfers to poor rural households. Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs are designed to incentivise parents to invest in their children’s health and wellbeing, while providing cash transfers to improve their current welfare.

PROGRESA involves a cash transfer that is conditional on the recipient household engaging in a set of behaviors designed to improve health and nutrition. The family only receives the cash transfer if:

(i) every family member accepts preventive medical care;

(ii) children age 0-5 and lactating mothers attend nutrition monitoring clinics where growth is measured, nutrition supplements are distributed, and they are provided education on nutrition and hygiene; and

(iii) pregnant women visit clinics to obtain prenatal care, nutritional supplements, and health education.

The size of the cash transfer is large, corresponding on average to one third of household income for the beneficiary families. Another unique feature of the program is that the cash transfers are given to the mother of the family.

Researchers evaluated the impact of Mexico’s national CCT program (PROGRESA) on a wide range of health outcomes. Preventive care utilisation increased by more than half, and both children and adults experienced significant improvements in health. Children experienced fewer illnesses, a reduction in anemia, and an increase in height.

Founded in 1997, PROGRESA grew to cover around 2.6 million families by the end of 1999, the equivalent of 40 percent of all rural families, and one in nine families nationally. Operating in 31 of the 32 states, in 50,000 localities and 2,000 municipalities, its 1999 budget of US$777 million equaled 0.2 percent of Mexico’s gross domestic product.

The high level of funding for PROGRESA, and reduced funding for other programs, was based on a deliberate policy decision – to favour programs that are better targeted to the poor, which involve co-responsibility by beneficiaries, and which promote long-term behavioural change.

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Scenario planning based on narrative or storytelling is one way of considering how various dimensions of wellbeing intersect within communities.

The UN supported 200 people in a series of 11 scenario-building workshops organized in six settings in the Mekong region (North-East Thailand; Tonle Sap, Cambodia; Mekong Delta, Viet Nam; Xishuangbanna, China; Nam Ngum Basin, Lao People’s Democratic Republic; and a regional gathering).

This process produced 21 final narratives about existing and potential wellbeing in communities. These narratives demonstrated how uncertain drivers manifested themselves over time and the effect they had on the lives of the ‘protagonists’ and their families in rural areas.

Analysis of the storylines created by participants revealed that protagonists in the stories, 50% of whom were women, frequently took risks voluntarily as well as experiencing it involuntarily, in changing locality to ensure their livelihoods. A common theme was that wellbeing in the region could be improved if people were able to stay in rural areas and avoid the instability of work, especially low-skilled wage labour, in cities.

Several participants expressed a vision in which people do well working in family or community enterprises involved in organic farming, aquaculture, carbon forestry, and ecotourism in rural areas.

Some stories imagined that if environmental governance improved, such enterprises could coexist near heavier industry, providing rural non-farm employment for farmers displaced because of inability to compete with large-scale farms.

This process shows the potential of scenario-building and narrative workshops to generate wellbeing visions that are informed by the reality of communities.

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South Africa has been using robust quantitative and participatory methods to conduct impact evaluations to better align their environmental goals with their socio-economic development goals. The iterative nature of their impact assessments and inclusive stakeholder engagement has been time consuming but it has allowed them to develop the necessary citizen support for bold policy reforms in the energy sector which balance a wide variety of wellbeing priorities.

South Africa’s energy policy is informed by its National Development Plan (NDP) 2030, which sets out a wellbeing vision to “eliminate poverty and reduce inequality by 2030… by drawing on the energies of its people, growing an inclusive economy, building capacities, enhancing the capacity of the state, and promoting leadership and partnerships throughout society”. The NDP highlights climate change as a critical factor for South Africa’s national development and prioritises a number of strategies to reduce the country’s greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs).

Historically, the majority of impact evaluations related to a reduction in emissions have focused on costs (e.g. GDP), but South Africa recognised the need to consider a variety of criteria when assessing impact such as energy access, employment, gender, health and welfare, quality of life, biodiversity impacts, climate impacts, and water use. The government and technical institutions in South Africa therefore undertook a series of multi-criteria impact assessment approaches to help them identify and prioritise the economic activities that best align with their country’s current and future wellbeing goals.

Through a series of quantitative and multi-stakeholder evaluations that took place over the course of several years, the Government’s Integrated Resource Plan for Electricity was revised to better respond to the growing energy demand in the country whilst maintaining their commitment to the development and climate goals of the country. Their goals include:

  • Increase in renewable installations (wind, photovoltaics and concentrated solar power to support local industry
  • Nuclear development to address cost uncertainties related to fuels and renewable energy
  • Reduction of CO2 emissions to 210 million tons/year by 2050, as compared to approximately 430 million tons/year under a baseline scenario
  • Implementation of energy efficiency demand side management actions.

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Maroma is a multi-million dollar Indian business that sells home fragrance and body care products. The Auroville community in India owns all shares in Maroma and employees have the autonomy to run and manage the business.

Maroma is the largest employer in Auroville and the biggest contributor. Each year, 40% of Maroma’s profits are returned to the community to further growth and development i.e. road building, water and sanitation, sustainable power, telecommunication and housing for Auroville residents.

Maroma also contributes financially to secondary and higher educational institutions in Auroville.

Maroma is a quintessential example of an enterprise fully embedded in its community and is a social enterprise that is certified Fair Trade for its implementation of all 10 Fair Trade Principles in all their operations and supply chains.

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In May 2018, the New Zealand Government set up the Just Transitions Unit in its Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, to foster a transition towards a low emissions economy that is “fair, equitable and inclusive”. The unit operates by creating partnerships in communities undergoing a major transition.

These partnerships have four objectives:

  1. Build an understanding of potential pathways to transform the economy to low emissions;
  2. Identify, create and support new opportunities, new jobs, new skills, and new investments that will emerge from the transition;
  3. Better understand how the transition might impact different communities, regions or sectors; and
  4. Make choices about how to manage these impacts in a just and inclusive way.

As part of its climate change programme, the Government stopped issuing new permits for offshore oil and gas exploration in 2018. That policy has a large impact on economic security in the Taranaki region, which has supported oil and gas exploration off the west coast of the North Island of New Zealand for several decades. The Just Transitions Unit has worked in that region, with a particular focus on its energy sector in a low emissions future.

It established a Taranaki Transition Lead Group of representatives drawn from central government, local government, Māori, business, the workforce, education and community organisations. This group facilitated 29 workshops around the region, including a specialised event for youth. It also sponsored a creative competition for students aged 7–18 to describe their vision for 2050; more than 140 took part. Material from this process fed into a draft Taranaki 2050 Roadmap, launched at a National Just Transition Summit hosted in the region in May 2019. The Summit involved 550 people from around the country. Kate Raworth (author of Doughnut Economics) was a keynote speaker.

Following the finalisation of the Roadmap in August 2019, the Lead Group then facilitated workshops to create eleven Transition Pathway Action Plans (TPAPs). The Energy TPAP, for example, agreed on the following Action Statement:

“Using our know how and resources we will transition to a world-leading energy eco-system that provides sustainable, secure and affordable low-emissions energy by 2050, while creating meaningful work, community well-being and prosperity for generations to come.”

Projects to implement the TPAPs are under way, including a project to build a Clean Energy centre in Taranaki.

Find out more here.

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Locavore is a Community Interest Company and social enterprise in Glasgow which exists to help build a more sustainable local food system which is better for the local economy, the environment and communities.

Running since 2011, Locavore has been working to improve Glasgow’s food network by means of the production and distribution of ecologically produced fruit and vegetables, as well as education around food. They operate a shop, a veg box scheme and grow on three sites, totalling around 1.2 hectares, which are all within 10 miles of Glasgow city centre.

Locavore’s ambition is to use the money raised from food sales to achieve social and environmental gains by funding projects and education about the global impact of food including climate change, animal welfare, exploitation, and workers’ rights.

Locavore is explicitly anti-corporate and strives to create an alternative to the supermarket model which has dominated food production and sales in Scotland.

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The National Performance Framework (NPF) is Scotland’s wellbeing framework, setting out the vision for the country by providing 11 National Outcomes and 81 National Indicators which focus on economic, social, and environmental factors.

In 2019, one year after the NPF was reviewed, the Scottish Government issued a Wellbeing report to evaluate the country’s progress towards the set wellbeing goals. The aim of the report was to provide evidence and analysis on key areas and features of Scotland’s performance which could inform decision making on policy, services, and spending. The areas examined include evidence around natural and economic resources, fair work, and an equitable working society, education, health, and community wellbeing. The report uses the framework’s data that support each National Outcome, along with evidence on equalities and additional information that can present a holistic picture on how Scotland is progressing towards the achievement of the National Outcomes.

The Wellbeing report aims to be a starting point for decision makers to better understand the key trends of Scotland’s performance in order to develop the necessary policies and activities to deliver the country’s vision.

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The Linwood Community Development Trust (LCDT) is a £2 million turnover venture group founded by six women with the backing of the local community in Linwood, a town of just over ten thousand people in Scotland. Their vision of a community-led local economy drives their work in galvanising bottom up economic development to improve health and wellbeing, reduce social inequalities, and build social capital.

The LCDT came about in response to private sector-led economic development that excluded residents from much of the promised economic benefits and ignored their voices in decision making. Previously, the small town used to rely on employment in one factory which closed in the 1980s.

Efforts started with online petitions and email campaigns protesting local government actions and were continued with extensive consultations over 2 years with 2500 local residents to inform plans for projects to address issues the community identified as being important.

The Trust successfully stimulated local development in line with what local people said they want and need. Successful initiatives include a community owned village (‘Mossedge’) including an all-weather football pitch, centre, theatre, and café and the Roots of Linwood Grocers, which generate local employment and meet local needs.

This work aligns the outcomes of the economy with what local people value. Linwood’s employee-owned small businesses capture and maintain circulation of funds locally – the surplus of which is reinvested in Linwood.

Along with keeping wealth circulating in the community, the LCDT’s progressive development measures have improved health and sense of community and participation in the town.

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Scotland introduced their Wellbeing Framework, called the “National Performance Framework” (NFP) in 2007, which was later put into law in 2015.

“Putting wellbeing at the heart of our approach means we can focus on a wider set of measures which reflect on things like health and happiness of citizens as well as economic wealth to create a world that considers the quality of a person’s life to be as precious an asset as financial success”. – Scotland’s First Minister

In order to inform its development, the Scottish government used data collected by a public consultation, entitled ‘Creating a fairer Scotland’, to better understand the wellbeing priorities of the population. The consultation included questions such as:

  • What are the issues that matter most to you?
  • What do you think needs to be done to create a fairer Scotland?
  • How can you and your community play a role in helping to shape our future?

Participants were able to engage through the government’s website, social media platforms, via email and freepost, or attend one of the 200 open events organised across the country. During this process, 7000 people took part in the public events and around 17,500 visited the social media platforms. The responses were then summarised in five core categories (working and living standards; homes and communities; early years, education, and health; community participation and public services; respect and dignity), which relate to some of the National Performance Framework themes.

In 2018, the National Performance Framework was reviewed and updated, with the aim to publish a new set of National Outcomes and to embed the UN Sustainable Development Goals and Scotland’s Action Plan for Human Rights. To ensure greater public involvement so that the new National Outcomes reflected the values and aspirations of people in Scotland, the Scottish government organised a two-phased consultation.

The first phase of the process focused on public engagement. During this phase, public views and opinions were collected through public discussion groups and street stalls, and workshops and a review of projects and programmes were provided by the Children’s parliament. In addition, the Scottish government took into consideration the findings of the conversation for “Creating a Fairer Scotland”, held in 2015, and “Creating a Healthier Scotland” in 2016 when drafting the National Outcomes.

The second phase of the consultation included expert engagement. During this phase, a lead Committee was formed, comprised of the Local Government and Communities Committee, and various stakeholders were approached seeking views on the revised National Outcomes and National Indicators to inform the framework’s scrutiny. The Scottish Government also organised conversations with stakeholders, an online survey, along with a series of discussions to explore whether the National Performance Framework reflects the set vision.

After this large-scale consultation, the Scottish Government’s National Performance Framework Team, part of the Data, Statistics and Outcomes Division, with the support of the government’s Performance and Priorities, collated the data, and the findings were further worked up into thematic areas.

Each of the thematic areas was identified based on the relative depth and breadth of the participants’ views during the consultation process, and, subsequently, were further developed into a draft set of National Outcomes.

The output of this process was the development of the refreshed National Performance Framework, which sets out 11 National wellbeing Outcomes measured through 81 National Indicators.

Scotland articulated their wellbeing vision as having the purpose of “creating a more successful country with opportunities for all of Scotland to flourish through increased wellbeing, and inclusive and sustainable growth” underpinned by the values we are a society that treats all our people with kindness, dignity and compassion, respects the rule of law and acts in an open and transparent way”.

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LOVE is a group of organisations providing social services to promote social justice, inclusion, and wellbeing. Charitable services in one part of the group are financed by commercial activities in other parts of the group.

LOVE is a one-of-a-kind social business that funds its outreach charitable services – such as education and social care – through corporate services, such as wellbeing, professional training, and recruitment. LOVE’s outreach services include education support, employability, sport and physical wellbeing, and social care.

LOVE’s approach differs from other outreach providers in that they identify gaps or opportunities to support vulnerable individuals who would otherwise have limited or no access to the services they need. For example, they deliver services to vulnerable people with 24/7 crisis care where standard services operate during office hours only.

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A car manufacturer founded to ‘pursue, systematically, the elimination of the environmental impact of personal transport’. The company is working towards its vision is of mobility at zero cost to the planet.

Riversimple’s business model aims to completely rethink the automobile sector, from open-source design to a circular economy approach to car use.

The founders redefine ownership by including key decision makers in their governance structure, not only investors but also the Environment, Customers, Communities, Staff, Investors, and Commercial Partners.

The Board’s duty is to balance and protect the benefit streams of all six stakeholder groups, rather than maximising the value of one.

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Between 1992 to 1994, the Quindío department of Colombia developed its regional development plan through a participatory process. Institutions from a wide variety of social sectors were invited to participate in the construction of the plan. These included: local NGOs, community groups, agricultural and ecological groups, universities and schools, regional businesses, investors and hospitals, as well as officials and officers from various municipalities. For some meetings, more specialised groups were also invited.

The process lasted 6 months and resulted in a multi-sectoral plan with a budget, which was based on a set of reports and studies, a collection of sectorial diagnoses, policy statements, and a series of priority-setting processes. The regional government worked under the guidance of CIDER, the Interdisciplinary Centre of Development Studies, of the University of the Andes in Bogota.

As a result of this plan, and other processes, Quindío began:

  1. Investment in its tourism industry, which has since become one of the foremost tourist areas of the country.
  2. A concerted effort to diversify agriculture, which had been based largely on coffee for exportation.
  3. To emphasise the need for improved investment in education, especially in rural areas.

This was one of the first participatory regional development plans in the country. It was followed by similar plans elsewhere, as well as in the Quindio itself. For example, the ‘El Plan Quindío 2020’ is even more participatory than its predecessors and it makes a more direct effort to include marginalized groups.

The Quindío department has used this model of planning for more specific projects such the recuperation of rivers and the strategic plans for sectors of the economy.

In general, the are many forms of public participation in the governance of the country partly because this is a strong element of the country’s Constitution. Article 103 outlines various mechanisms for a more participatory democracy.

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